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sexta-feira, 16 de outubro de 2015


From the original book and play to big screen adaptations, cartoon and literary sequels, Karen Krizanovich takes a closer look at how Pan has evolved

Some say tragedy brought Peter Pan to life. James Matthew Barrie was six years old when he watched his mother slide into grief over the death of her favourite son David, taking small solace from the idea that his elder brother would at least stay a boy forever.

That resounding moment planted a seed in the Scottish author and playwright’s mind that sprouted up as a character called Peter Pan in Barrie’s 1902 novel The Little White Bird. Reintroduced in the play called Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn’t Grow Up, Peter Pan premiered on 27 December 1904 to a groundswell of acclaim. A tradition sprang up, and the play was adjusted several times. Typically, Peter Pan had to be played by a small actress as the theatre’s late hours precluded use of children. Then something had to be done to stop children flinging themselves out of windows trying to fly. Barrie said: “…after the first production I had to add something to the play at the request of parents (who thus showed that they thought me the responsible person) about no-one being able to fly until the fairy dust had been blown on him; so many children having gone home and tried it from their beds and needed surgical attention.”
Fun and adventure: the first film adaptation of the play by JM Barrie was the silent film of 1924
Fun and adventure: the first film adaptation of the play by JM Barrie was the silent film of 1924Credit: Rex

Barrie and his wife Mary were childless but he befriended the Llewelyn Davies family, Sylvia and Arthur and their five children, after meeting them in 1897. In 1901, at Barrie’s summer house, his photographs of three Llewelyn Davies children became the photo-book called The Boy Castaways of Black Lake Island, considered a forerunner to Peter Pan.
Why everyone loves Peter Pan is simple: who wouldn’t want to be naughty and never grow up? 

As a play, Peter Pan was hugely successful, running for almost a decade on stage. The adventures of an impish boy who never grows up was such an irresistible idea that Barrie’s publishers took chapters from The Little White Bird and published them in 1906 as a separate volume, Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, beautifully illustrated by Arthur Rackham, an artist most famous for ethereal drawings of fairies. Barrie expanded the play into the novel, Peter and Wendy, published in 1911.
Peter Pan’s appeal is universal, with over 30 different moving image versions of his story alone. Paramount Pictures’ silent film of 1924, considered the first film adaptation of the play was followed by Disney’s animated version of 1953. Afterwards, it seemed Peter was permanently ensconced at Disney HQ as a continuing character in sequels such as the animated Return To Neverland (2002), appearances in various Mickey Mouse vehicles and video games, theme parks (meet a living Peter Pan!) to a theme park “dark ride” called Peter Pan’s Flight.
Natural territory for that chronicler of childhood, Steven Spielberg took on the Peter Pan story in his 1991 film Hook, now thought a cult classic starring Robin Williams, Dustin Hoffman and a very excitable Julia Roberts as Tinker Bell. P J Hogan’s 2003 live-action film, Peter Pan, is a family favourite, with stars including Jeremy Sumpter and Jason Isaacs.
PAN Levi Miller
Family favourite: Pan is the story of an orphan who is spirited away to the magical NeverlandCredit: Warner Bros.
Among its many TV adaptations, the most recent is this year’s Peter and Wendy, a two-hour ITV drama featuring Stanley Tucci as Captain Hook. But this year’s biggest Peter Pan is director Joe Wright’s origin story Pan, starring Hugh Jackman as Blackbeard, Rooney Mara as Tiger Lilly and Cara Delevingne the mermaids.
The enormous appeal of Peter Pan has entered the Western unconscious, instantly associated with lightness, youth and fun. His name has been applied to racehorses, bus lines, peanut butter, vinyl records, rescue operations, psychological syndromes, graphic novels and pop bands. As a standard trope for the mischievous male, it pops up as an influence in many forms.
In books, Peter David’s Tigerheart transplants the Peter Pan story onto a boy called Paul Dear, who spends his time cavorting with fairies in Kensington Gardens when his dearest wish, like Barrie himself, would be to make his mother happy again.
As a play, Peter Pan was hugely successful, running for almost a decade on stage 
Dave Barry and Ridley Pearson’s series of Peter Pan-themed popular novels start with Peter and the Starcatchers in 2004 right through to Peter and the Sword of Mercy in 2009. Uniquely, the Great Ormond Street Hospital, the charity to which J M Barrie left the UK royalty rights, commissioned their own sequel – the only official one to Peter and Wendy – in 2006. Peter Pan in Scarlet, written by Geraldine McCaughrean, features Wendy, John, and the Lost Boys returning to Neverland, only to see Peter has taken over Captain Hook’s job.
Peter Pan reemerged on the London stage in 2013 in John Logan’s play, Peter and Alice. Headlined by Dame Judi Dench and Ben Whishaw, the play focuses on the meeting between Alice Liddell and Peter Llewelyn Davies in the Thirties. Each was an inspiration for a children’s classic – she for Alice in Wonderland and he for Peter Pan. Over 100 years old, the evergreen potential of Peter Pan belies its age. Why everyone loves Peter Pan is simple: who wouldn’t want to be naughty and never grow up?
Pan is is released in UK cinemas from Friday 16 October, with previews on 10 and 11 October 2015. Find out more at
Led by Hugh Jackman, Garrett Hedlund, Rooney Mara, Amanda Seyfried and Levi Miller, meet the key characters of Joe Wright's fantasy film Pan
With so many memorable characters in Pan, the new family fantasy film, here's a list of all the key people you'll need to know before heading to the cinema this October. 
Peter (pictured above)
Clever and strong-willed, Peter is a 12-year-old orphan who is swept into the sky to Neverland, a place of fantastic adventure peopled with new friends – and enemies.
James Hook in Pan
Peter Pan's ally: American actor, model and singer, Garrett Hedlund, takes the role of James HookCredit: Warner Bros.
James Hook 
One of the dust miners held hostage by Blackbeard, Hook and Peter team up to escape from the fearsome pirate’s camp into the mysteries of Neverland itself.
Blackbeard in Pan
Stealing the spotlight: Hugh Jackman sports a unique look for his portrayal as BlackbeardCredit: Warner Bros.
Egotistical, poignant and cruel, Blackbeard kidnaps children from other worlds to work his mines forever. He can only be defeated by a boy who can fly.
Tiger Lily in Pan
Princess of Neverland: Rooney Mara plays the native American princess Tiger LilyCredit: Warner Bros.
Tiger Lily 
Tiger Lily’s warrior skills keep Neverland out of Blackbeard’s grasp and she hopes that the prophecy of “a boy who can fly” will come true to save her beloved world.
Plus many more...
Sam Smiegel/Mr. Smee 
Sam Smiegel/Mr Smee is awkward and inept, but his knowledge of Blackbeard’s mines makes him a valuable if untrustworthy addition to Peter and Hook’s escape plan.
Mary is Peter’s mother, a beauty who leaves him as an infant at the orphanage. This desperate act saves his life and also hints at her own mysterious past.
As the head of Neverland’s Native Village, silver-bearded Chief is everything a wise leader should be: experienced and fair but also courageous and tough.
Blackbeard’s right-hand man on the flying galleon The Queen Anne’s Revenge is Bishop, a very able-bodied sailor and a loyal fighter rightfully feared by almost everyone.
Fellow orphan Nibs is Peter’s best friend at the miserable Lambeth Home for Boys. The first to be kidnapped and taken aboard by Blackbeard, Peter must try to rescue him.
Mother Barnabas 
Mother Barnabas is not a nice nun. She hides Peter’s identity from him as she turns the Lambeth Home for Boys into a cruelly tidy business.
Native village 
Neverland’s native villagers are a complete mix of ethnicities with garments inspired by indigenous tribes from across the world. Tiger Lily, Chief and their tribe passionately defend Neverland against Blackbeard’s wrath.
The only creatures who can keep the Never-Crocs away in the Mermaid Lagoon, the school of identically beautiful Mermaids packs a literal electric sting in their glowing fish-tails.
Enormous in size and hugely dangerous, the Never-Crocs swim almost unseen and threatening at the edge of the Mermaid Lagoon.
Neverland is a colourful place, filled with Neverbirds, 12 metre-long meat-eating predators in rainbow colours that Peter and his friends meet on the way to the Fairy Kingdom.
Mysterious and beautiful, Neverland is a world of wondrous places teeming with exotic creatures. Threatened by Blackbeard, Tiger Lily and her tribe have sworn to defend this diminishing world.
Lambeth home for boys 
Peter’s mother leaves him in this bleak orphanage, promising to return. But Blackbeard’s ship comes too soon, stealing Peter away from the only place his mother can find him.
The Jolly Roger 
An abandoned flying ship, The Jolly Roger becomes Peter and Hook’s chance to escape the mining camp – an act that hooks Hook on being a captain of a pirate ship.
The Ranger 
The Ranger is Blackbeard’s 100ft-long 18th-century galleon-class pirate ship, which sports eight mighty guns, ready to kidnap boys from the orphanage to become slaves in his mines.
The Queen Anne's Revenge 
With 200 mighty guns, the 100ft galleon The Queen Anne’s Revenge is the nerve centre of Blackbeard’s mining empire, a key weapon in his quest to find the Fairy Kingdom.
Pan is is released in UK cinemas from Friday 16 October, w

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